Glossary - general

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Galeate – hollow and domed

Gametophyte – haploid generation that bears the sexual organs

Gamopetalous – with joined petals

Gamophyllous – with leaves connate by their edges

Gamosepalous – with joined sepals

Gamotepalous – with joined tepals

Garled – twisted, mis-shaped

Garside’s rule (of pollen grains) – (Proteaceae) the apertures of triaperturate pollen grains form in groups of three at four points in the tetraedral tetrad

Geminate – in pairs

Gemmate tectum (of pollen grains) – with an ornamentation of elements which are constricted at their base, taller than 1 µm and have approximately the same width as their height

Geniculate – bent like a knee

Geniculum (of petiole) – a knee-like angular structure at the distal part of the petiole near the lamina (in, i.a., some Araceae)

Geocarpic, geocarpous – fruits maturing underground, developed from aerial flowers and pushed into the ground as they ripen (e.g. peanut)

Geophilous – on, or from, the ground

Geophyte – plant surviving unfabourable season(s) by underground organs such as rhizome, bulb, tuber or root bud

Geophytic – plants with underground buds

Geotropic – turning towards the earth, growing downwards

Geoxylic habit – with massive woody underground parts

Germination – seed developing into seedling

Germination tube – germ tube; a thread-like outgrowth from a spore (e.g. a pollen grain, see Pollen tube)

Gibberulous – (Euphorbiaceae) slightly more convex on one side than on the other

Gibbosity, gibbosities – swellings

Gibbous – (1) more convex on one side than on the other, such as a not quite full moon; (2) inflated on one side near the base, slighly pouched

Girth – the circumference of a tree bole

Glabrate – without indument

Glabrescent – becoming glabrous or nearly so

Glabrous – smooth and without hairs, scales or other indumentum; nowadays often used for hairless alone

Gland – a secretory area or mass on the surface, either embedded or at the tip of a hair

Glandular – covered with glands or with a zone of secretion-producing tissue

Glandular cap (of leaf tooth) – a glandular structure covering the very apex of the leaf teeth (in, e.g., monimioid leaf teeth)

Glandular hair – a hair with secretory function

Glandular-punctate leaf or other organ – covered with glands which are sunk into the surface, and which usually show as translucent dots when held up to the light

Glanduliferous – bearing glands

Glandular tapetum – see Secretory tapetum

Glaucous – covered with a waxy bluish grey or sea-green bloom (as on a plum or cabbage)

Globose – round, spherical

Globules – small round three-dimensional bodies

Glochid – barbed bristle

Glochidiate – beset with barbed bristles

Glomerate – compactly clustered flowers collected into a dense group or head

Glomerulate – with glomerules

Glomerule – a dense cluster of (sub-)sessile flowers

Glomeruliform – shaped like a glomerule

Glomerum (of inflorescence) – a glomerulate ball-like and cymose inflorescence

Glumaceous – resembling the husk of a grain; a bract that appears to be a glume but is not

Glume – the bract, usually present in pairs, at the base of the grass spikelet

Glutinous – covered with sticky substance

Grade into – gradually change from one state to another

Grain – (1) general term for the fruit of cereals; (2) a small, rounded body (e.g. about the shape and size of a grain of rice)

Graminaceous – relating to grasses or grain-bearing plants

Granular, granulate – (of surface) covered with small grains; (of substance) consisting of , or mixed with, small grains

Granular ectexine/tectum (of pollen grains) – see Granular infratectum

Granular endosperm – with starch granules

Granular infratectum (of pollen grains) – the layer beneath the tectum provided with granules; with an exine stratification in which the infratectal layer is composed of rounded granules rather than of columellae or other structures

Granules – small amorphous grain-like particles

Granulose – composed of grains

Gregarious – growing in groups, and locally dominant

Grooved – with long narrow indentations

Guard cells – a pair of specialized cells surrounding the stomatal pore and usually surrounded by subsidiary cells

Gum – hardened exudate from wounded stem or leaves, soluble in water

Gynandrium – see Gynostemium

Gynobasic – when the style rises apparently from the base of the ovary (as in most Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae), rather than from the apex

Gynodioecious – with some plants bearing only functionally hermaphrodite flowers and other plants functionally female flowers

Gynoecial nectaries – nectaries present on the ovary, either near the base or on the upper parts, sometimes on top of the ovary; nectaries which are supplied by gynoecial vasculature branches

Gynoecium – the female element of a flower, the pistil(s)

Gynomonoecious – with functionally hermaphrodite flowers and functionally female flowers on the same plant

Gynophore – a stalk carrying the ovary (formed by elongation of the receptacle) (e.g. in Capparoideae and Cleomoideae)

Gynostegium – (1) an unspecified covering of the gynoecium; (2) (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) a compound structure comprising the staminal column and the stigma-head, and formed by postgenital fusion between androecium and gynoecium, specifically between anthers and stigmas.

Gynostemium (gynandrium) – (Orchidaceae) of orchid flowers the column of an orchid, the male and female parts combined