Glossary – phytochemistry (under construction)

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Barbeyol – a phenolic indane

Benzofuran – a type of terpene formed from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and an acetate-derived polyketide precursor

Benzoisoquinolines – organic compounds with the benzene ring added to an isoquinoline nucleus

Benzopyran – a type of terpene, pigments, a class of chromone

Benzopyrone – ketone derivatives (chromone, coumarin) of benzopyran forming core skeleton of numerous flavonoids

Benzoquinones – simple quinones in which an aromatic ring is fused to two oxygen atoms, there being two carbonyl groups, usually in the para (1,4) position; often yellow

Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids – a group of isoquinoline alkaloids, usually poisonous; modified dimmers of tyrosine derived from 3,4-dihydroxytyramine (dopamine) condensed with a carbonyl compound (4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde), a benzene ring added to an isoquinoline nucleus; examples of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are aporphine alkaloids (bulbocapnine, glaucine, stephanine, laureline, isothebaine, isocorytuberine, morphine), Argemone alkaloids (argemonine, eschscholtzine, munitagine), cularine, Erythrina alkaloids (erythraline), Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, papaverine, armepavine, coclaurine, and bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (magnoline, berbamine, oxyacanthine, thalicberine, tubocurarine, liensinine, isochondrodendrine, ocotine, pilocereine, thalicarpine)

Berberine – a (quaternary ammonium salt of) protoberberine of the isoquinoline alkaloid group and with a negatively charged functional group (i.a. a carboxylate group)

Bergenin – cuscutin; a trihydroxybenzoic acid glycoside, the C-glycoside of 4-O-methyl gallic acid

Betacyanins – red-violet betalains

Beta-carbaline alkaloids – a class of indole alkaloids which are derived from the amino acid L-tryptophan

Betaines – alkaloid-like compounds with a positively charged cationic functional group without a hydrogen atom; a quaternary ammonium basic derivative, may play a role in osmotic regulation in halophytes

Betalains – type of alkaloids, chromoalkaloids (coloured alkaloids); although not really anthocyanins, they are often called ‘nitrogenous anthocyanins’, including betacyanins (betanine) and betaxanthins (indicaxanthin)

Betaxanthins – yellow betalains

Betulinic acid – a pentacyclic triterpenoid

Biflavonoids – a class of flavonoids, most of which are flavone and flavanone dimmers with a simple 5,7,4’- or 5,7,3’,4’-ogygenation pattern, derived from the oxidative coupling of two chalcone units and subsequent modification of the central C3 units

Biflavonyls – a class of flavonoids formed by the dimerization of the flavone apigenin

Bipiperidine alkaloids – alkaloids with features intermediate between piperidine and pyridine alkaloids; bipiperidine alkaloids are found in Amaranthaceae, Berberidaceae, Fabaceae, etc. and include, e.g., ammodendrine, N-methylammodendrine and N-acetylhystrine

Brazzein – a sweet-tasting protein present in Pentadiplandra brazzeana

Bufadienolides – a subclass of triterpenoids (nortriterpenoids) composed of 24 carbon atoms, basically a C24 steroid with a six-membered doubly unsaturated lactone ring at C17; heart poisons and toxins