Glossary – phytochemistry (under construction)

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Tannins – complex, aromatic (phenolic) compounds that precipitate proteins and occurring especially in the bark of many shrubs and trees; tannins vary considerably in chemical composition and differ in their biosynthetic pathways; preferable terms: proanthocyanidins, hydrolyzable tannins

Tartaric acid – a diprotic organic acid, a dihydroxyl derivative of succinic acid; tartaric acid occurs in fruits of numerous angiosperms

Taxiphyllin – a cyanogenic glycoside

Tellimagrandin I – a hydrolyzable ellagitannin

Tellimagrandin II – a hydrolyzable ellagitannin formed from 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloyl-glucose

Terpenoid alkaloids – terpene alkaloids; alkaloids derived from terpenoid precursors; examples are matatabi lacone, actinidine, gentiopicroside, and gentianine

Terpenoids – terpenes; usually hydrophilic compounds originating from isopentenyl and dimethylallyl pyrophosphates, consist of an isoprenoid skeleton or of a polymer made up of several such units, substituent groups may have varying degrees of oxygenation, e.g. alcoholic, ketonic, etc.; terpenoids are subdivided according to their number of carbon atoms; approx. 15.000 different types of terpenoids are known; terpenoids, quinolizidine alkaloids and certain other secondary substances are produced exclusively or almost so in mitochondria and/or plastids

Diterpenes (diterpenoid compounds): acyclic diterpenes, monocyclic diterpenes, bicyclic diterpenes, polycyclic diterpenes, aromatic and quinonoid diterpenes (carnosic acid, royleanone, picrosalvin, tanshinone I, tanshinone II); diterpenoid alkaloids (garryfoline, atisine, delphinine)

Hemiterpenes (highly reactive): tiglic acid, isovaleraldehyde, isovaleric acid, senecioic acid, angelic acid, sarracinic acid


Monoterpenes: rotenone, xanthyletin, ostruthin, oroselone, toddalolactone, nodakenetin, peucedanin, sphondin, pimpinellin, isopimpinellin, bergapten, isobergapten, artemisia ketone, chrysanthemic acid, lavandulol

Organic acids of isoprenoid structure: tiglic, angelic, α-methylbutyric, sarracenic, α-hydroxy-α-methylbutyric, senecic and echimidinic acid

Polyterpenes: resins

Sesquiterpenes: farnesol and acyclic sesquiterpenes; dendrolasin, ipomeamarone; cyclic sesquiterpenes (curcumene, turmerone, lanceol, atlantone, humulene, caryophyllene, etc.); perezone; products arising from trans trans farnesol (germacrone, humulene, zerumbone, maaliol, occidentalol, occidol, guaiol, nootkatone, bulnesol, ilicic acid); bicyclic compounds derived from farnesol; sesquiterpene lactones (costol, costal, costic acid, costunolide, eudesmol, santonin, vulgarin, farinosin, artabsin, globicin, cumambrin A, tenulin, coronopilin, hysterin, parthenolide, xanthinin, psilostachyin C)

Tetraterpenes: lycopene (acyclic), (γ-carotene) monocyclic, α-carotene and β-carotene (bicyclic), canthaxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin

Triterpenes: pentacyclic triterpenes (lupeol, taraxasterol, bauerenol, α-amyrin), triterpenes and sterols with C-234 carbon substituents (euphorbol, eburicoic acid, citrostadienol, β-sitosterol, ergosterol, stigmasterol, oryzanol A, oryzanol C), degraded triterpenes (nyctanthic acid, dammarenolic acid, ceanothic acid, cucurbitacin A, cucurbitacin E), triterpenes with oxygenated side chains (21-hydroxylanostadienone, pinicolic acid, aglaiol, bourjotinolone B, bourjotone, flindissol, isoflindissone lactone, turraeanthin melianone, cucurbitacins) taraxerol

Thaumatin – a sweet-tasting protein present in Thaumatococcus daniellii

Theobromine – a pseudoalkaloid

Tiglic acid – cis-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid; a hemiterpenoid (C5H8), an unsaturated fatty acid with an isoprene skeleton, possibly not biogenetically related to the terpenoids, more probably derived from leucine

Tocopherols – a class of various methylated phenols a number of which have vitamin E activity; tocotrienols, which may show similar activity, have three double bonds in the side tail

Triacylglycols – see Triglycerides

Tricine – N-(2-hydroxy-1,1-bis(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)glycine

Triglochinin – a cyanogenic glycoside

Triglycerides – triacylglycerol, triacylglyceride; esters derived from glycerol and three fatty acids

Triterpene alkaloids – alkaloids derived from triterpene precursors; present in, i.a., Buxus and Daphniphyllum

Triterpene saponins – compounds which are arranged in a four- or five-ring configuration of 30 carbons; derived from C5 isoprene units via mevalonate pathways; examples include araloside, astragaloside, bacoside, cucurbitacin, ginsenoside, and withanolide

Triterpenoids – largest single class of terpenoids, the basic structure made up of 30 carbon atoms from six isoprene units), found in resin, cutin, cork, and present as glycosides

Tropane – a bicyclic compound, the base of tropane alkaloids, synthesized via ornithine

Tryptamine – a monoamine alkaloid with indole ring structure; tryptamines include, e.g., bufotenin, melatonin, psilocybin and serotonin

L-Tryptophane – aromatic, hydrophobic, neutral non-polar amino acid

Tulipaline – α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone

L-Tyrosine – a non-protein amino acid, aromatic, polar, hydrophobic